What is solar led street light?

A solar led street light is a light source that is completely powered by solar energy. It consists of LED street lights, solar panels, batteries, controllers and other components. Solar panels collect energy during the day to charge rechargeable batteries, which then power the light fixtures at night. They come in many shapes and sizes, with optional features like motion sensors and remote controls.

Why use solar led street light?

As we all know, climate change is the greatest threat to the security and economic health of the world today. The greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions we produce are a major cause of rapid change in Earth’s climate. The burning of fossil fuels such as coal, oil and natural gas for electricity, heat and transport is a major source of greenhouse gases. Fossil fuels such as oil, natural gas and coal are under pressure due to excessive consumption, which is known as the energy crisis. The use of clean, renewable energy sources such as solar energy is one of the most important actions to address climate change and the energy crisis and reduce environmental impact. Therefore, the solar led street light market is growing rapidly.

What are the types of solar led street light?

Solar led street lights on the market are mainly divided into three types:

  • General solar led street light
  • 2 in 1 solar led street light
  • all in one solar led street light

General solar led street light

That is, LED street lights, solar panels and batteries are installed separately. Typically, the battery has a large capacity and has more days of backup. The power of LED street lights is greater than the other two. This one is more suitable for roads, streets or any public outdoor area.

2 in 1 solar led street light

That is, the battery and the controller are installed in the LED street light, and the solar panel is separate.

All in one solar led street light

It refers to the solar panel, battery and controller installed in the LED street light shell. Low power, easy installation, suitable for areas that do not require strong light. It’s perfect for your backyard.

What are the advantages of solar led street light?

Environmentally friendly: Using solar street lights can reduce carbon dioxide emissions

Cost-effective: Solar street lights use sunlight as energy. You will not have to pay your electricity provider monthly. It’s a smart long-term investment.

Bbier lighting manufacturing is a company specializing in the manufacture of outdoor solar led street lights.
Requires very little maintenance: solar panels can last more than 20 years. There’s not much you can do to ensure its longevity other than cleaning and doing some inspections. It will help you save a lot of maintenance costs.

Easy to install: it does not need to be connected to a distant power station. You can place it anywhere you need to light up. Follow the instructions for hassle-free operation.

Safe: Direct current (DC) electricity is generated by solar panels and stored in batteries, which is safer for humans than alternating current (AC) electricity.

What are the components of solar led street light?

  1. Solar panels: Solar panels are one of the most important components of solar led street light. Solar panels collect energy during the day and convert solar energy into electrical energy used by light energy. There are two types of solar panels commonly used in solar led street light: single crystal and polycrystalline. The conversion rate of monocrystalline solar panels is much higher than that of polycrystalline solar panels.
  2. LED street lights: LEDs have energy-saving features, the energy consumption of LED lamps is at least 50% lower than that of HPS lamps, and LED lamps are also less prone to failure, with an average working time of 50,000 hours, while traditional street lamps range from 5,000 to 8,000 working hours, and the failure rate higher. Therefore, LED street lights are the main light source of solar street lights.
  3. Rechargeable Batteries: Batteries are used to store electricity from solar panels during the day and to power LED street lights at night. The capacity of the battery affects the number of days the lamp will last, and the life cycle of the battery is important to the life of the lamp. Gel batteries, deep cycle batteries, lead-acid batteries, and Absorbed Glass Mat (AGM) batteries are the three types of batteries commonly used in solar lamps. Lithium-ion batteries are also popular now because of their small size, higher energy density, voltage capacity, and lower self-discharge rates.
  4. Solar Charge Controller: The controller is the brain of the solar street light. It’s a regulator, and the solar charge controller decides when to turn the lights on or off, and when to charge the battery. When the battery is nearly full, the controller will gradually reduce the charging current to maintain the voltage required to keep the battery fully charged and maintain the state of charge, thus protecting the battery from overcharging and undercharging. There are two main types of solar charge controllers: Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) and Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT).
  5. Sensors: Using sensors is one of the best ways to reduce the power requirements of solar street lights. There are some types of sensors such as dusk to dawn sensors, motion sensors, etc.
  6. Light pole: For every solar led street light, a sturdy light pole is essential. Heavy items like solar panels, batteries, LED lights are all mounted on it and should be able to withstand hurricanes in some areas. Light poles should be rust-resistant and durable enough to support long-life LED street lights and solar panels.
  7. Interconnection cables: Solar panels, LED lights, solar charge controllers and batteries are interconnected by cables. The size and length of the cable depends on the current in the light and the height of the pole.

The functionality of a solar led street light depends on the quantity on each component, the technology used in the system, and the management of the light. Choosing the right solar led street light is not an easy task, we have to understand the system design and so many technical specifications. You need a professional and reliable supplier who can design and select suitable components according to your requirements. Here is a guide on how to choose solar street light components.

How to choose solar panels for solar led street light?

The price of solar technology has fallen significantly in recent years, falling by more than 80% since 2010. Making solar panels more affordable than ever. There are more and more applications based on the solar system. Solar led street light is a popular application because LED light sources can use direct current (DC) electricity without investing in inverters.

Choosing a solar panel is not easy. We have to consider some factors: conversion efficiency, conversion speed, temperature coefficient, PID resistance, durability, watt capacity, size, etc.

Conversion efficiency

Monocrystalline and polycrystalline are two common types of solar panels in the market. The conversion rate of monocrystalline solar panels (currently around 21%) is much higher than that of their polycrystalline counterparts (around 18.5%). So we chose monocrystalline solar panel for solar led street light. The color of monocrystalline solar panels is relatively pure and easy to identify.

Conversion speed

The switching speed is determined by the nickel wire, the nickel wire grid carries power into or out of the device, so more nickel wire means faster. And the thinner the nickel wire, the better, otherwise the wire will prevent sunlight from reaching the semiconductor.

Temperature Coefficient

The temperature of a solar panel has a direct impact on its ability to generate electricity. This effect is reflected in the temperature coefficient, which is expressed as the percent decrease in output for each degree Celsius (°C) increase in temperature from 25°C (77°F). Solar panels are tested for efficiency at 25°C, which is why this is used as a reference point. The lower the percentage per degree Celsius, the better. The price of the low temperature common effect module may be higher.

PID resistance

Potential-induced degradation (PID) is an undesirable property of some solar modules that occurs when the voltage potential and leakage currents of the module drive ions within the module to migrate between the semiconductor material and other elements of the module, caused by some Triggered by climatic conditions such as humidity and temperature. A good solar panel will show little or no PID.

Durability

Solar panels are designed to withstand harsh weather conditions (such as extreme temperatures, hurricanes, hail, frost) to resist dirt and water, guaranteeing a minimum 20-year lifespan. High-grade materials are required. But not all manufacturers use good materials, here are some tips for you to check with the manufacturer.

  • Glass Type: The glass protects the interior of the solar panel components. Poor quality glass can cloud over time and affect the efficiency of solar panels. It is also easy to break and cause module damage. Tempering is a premium material.
  • Encapsulant: Encapsulant is used to bond and seal photovoltaic and solar panels, and UV resistant materials should be used, as prolonged exposure to UV light can cause non-UV encapsulant to brown and reduce light transmission.
  • Backsheet: The PV backsheet is located on the outermost layer of the PV module. It is an electrical insulator that protects internal components, especially photovoltaic cells and electrical components, from external stresses. It is the only layer that protects solar modules from DC voltages. To achieve this, the backplane should be robust and have high dielectric properties. Backplane failures can cause serious power losses and safety issues, from power drops to personal injury. A high-quality backplane provides voltage protection and maintenance prevention, just as important as the glass covering the cells.
  • Frame: Usually made of aluminum, the frame provides mounting attachment points and protection for the edges of the glass laminate. It should be sturdy enough to withstand any severe weather or other influences. Anodized aluminum is an ideal material because of its increased corrosion resistance.

Watt capacity and size

The capacity and size of the watt depends on the power of the LED street light. It is best to buy all components of solar led street light from one manufacturer. Lamp manufacturers design and choose the right solar panel for the light source, it will help you save time and avoid other problems.

How to choose the right LED street light?

LED street lights are the light source of solar led street lights. When choosing LED street lights, specifications such as efficiency, IP rating, color temperature, luminous efficiency, and color rendering index should be considered. We need to choose suitable LED chips, LED drivers, etc. This is a complicated job. A qualified supplier will do it all for you.

How to choose rechargeable battery for solar led street light?

There are several kinds of batteries on the solar led street light market: lead acid batteries, AGM batteries, gel batteries deep cycle batteries and lithium batteries. AGM batteries and gel batteries deep cycle batteries are other types of lead acid batteries. Let’s see the character of each of them, then we will know which one is more suitable for solar led street light.

Lead-acid batteries

Lead-acid batteries have been used in many applications for over 130 years and remain the most widely used rechargeable battery for small to medium storage applications.

Advantages of lead-acid batteries: low cost; it is almost completely recyclable; reliable and tolerant of abuse; it comes in all shapes and sizes; withstands overcharging; low self-discharge.

Disadvantages of lead-acid batteries: bulky; not suitable for fast charging; reliance on harmful and restricted lead, not environmentally friendly; temperatures above 20ºC will rapidly shorten the life of lead-acid batteries; limited cycle life means short life.

AGM battery

Absorbent glass mat (AGM) batteries have a fiberglass mesh between the panels to hold the electrolyte and separator plates, and have been the darling of the market for the past few decades, primarily for backup in military and heavy-duty vehicles Power sources such as long-haul trucks.

Advantages of AGM batteries: Fast charging, 5 times faster than flooded technology; maintenance-free; low self-discharge; spill-proof as the glass mat holds the electrolyte in place; longer lifespan; durable and can withstand extreme temperature changes .

Disadvantages of AGM batteries: bulky, low specific energy; high cost; low tolerance to overcharge and high voltage; gradually decreasing capacity.

Gel battery deep cycle battery

Gel batteries are similar to AGM batteries in that the electrolyte is suspended, except that AGM batteries are wet batteries and gel batteries have silica additives to set or harden the electrolyte.

Advantages of Gel Cell Deep Cycle Batteries: Saves you from acid leakage and frequent maintenance; Corrosion resistant grid for up to 10 years of life; Low self-discharge; More charge/discharge cycles; In hot weather Lasts longer in application.

Disadvantages of gel battery deep cycle batteries: low charging voltage; sensitive to overvoltage charging; bulky, low specific energy.

Lithium battery

Lithium batteries use metallic lithium as the anode. Lithium has proven to be an extremely reliable battery technology over the past decade. Lithium batteries are widely used in electric vehicles, cell phones, cameras, laptops and other mobile devices. Lithium batteries are even used for energy storage in the grid. Therefore, lithium batteries seem to have many advantages over more traditional batteries such as lead-acid batteries.

For solar led street light, lithium iron phosphate battery (LiFePO4 battery) is commonly used. It is a lithium-ion battery that uses LiFePo4 as the positive electrode material, graphitic carbon electrode and metal backing as the negative electrode

The advantages of lithium iron phosphate batteries are as follows:

LONGER LIFETIME: LiFePO4 batteries can be used up to 5000 cycles at 80% depth of discharge without performance degradation. Guaranteed 8-10 years of service life. And some lead-acid batteries have only 300 cycles and only two years of use.

Maintenance Free: No maintenance required to extend the service life. Batteries have no memory effect. Long-term storage is possible due to low self-discharge.

Safety and environmental protection: lithium iron phosphate batteries do not contain heavy metals and rare earth metals. Its thermal stability and chemical stability, thereby improving the safety of the battery.

Small size: Lithium iron phosphate batteries are relatively small and lightweight compared to lead-acid batteries. Because it provides high power density. Now about 160Wh/kg-185Wh/kg.

High Efficiency: Fast charging and discharging. Fast charging reduces downtime and increases efficiency. High discharge pulse current provides burst power in short time.

To summarize:

Comparing lead-acid batteries and lithium batteries, we know that lithium batteries are ideal for solar led street lights. Since solar panels, batteries and lamps are all mounted on top of the poles and must withstand strong winds, lightweighting is required. Batteries should have higher power density for more backup days.

Due to the low cost, lead acid batteries might work for another solar light, but not for solar led street lights.

How to choose a solar charge controller?

The most important thing for a solar charge controller is to properly control the charging and discharging, protect the battery and solar panel, and make it last as long as possible.

There are two types of solar charge controllers on the market: Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) and Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT)

PWM is low cost, but not as efficient as MPPT. MPPT can give you 30% more power than PWM, and it also allows strings of panels to be connected in series for higher voltages, thus keeping lower amperage and smaller wire sizes, especially for long line runs of PV arrays.

To choose the right solar charge controller, we have to know some information such as the wattage of the solar panel; the voltage of the battery, then we can calculate the amperage of the solar controller.

For example, 100 watt solar panel / 12 volt battery = 8.3 amps. Then a 10A charge controller is fine, if you use a 200w solar panel and a 12v battery, you must use a 20A charge controller.

Solar led street light manufacturers will choose the appropriate charge controller, some controllers are built into the lamp housing. You can check with your supplier.

 

In conclusion:

We know that using solar led street light is a great way to protect the environment. How to choose the right solar led street light is a lot of work and takes time. After our explanation above, I hope you are clear and make this job easier. The most important thing is to choose professional manufacturing.

If you have any other questions about solar led street light, please feel free to email to phoebe@bbier.com and we will get back to you as soon as possible.