The function characteristics and application of solar street lamp components
In the development of new energy, it is recognized at home and abroad that the highest technical content and the most promising development prospect is solar power generation. Solar power generation mainly has solar thermal power generation and solar solar power generation in two ways. This paper focuses on solar energy generation. Solar energy power generation is the direct conversion of solar energy into electrical power generation, can be divided into photovoltaic power generation, light induction power generation, photochemical power generation and photobiological power generation four kinds; At present, the most widely used photovoltaic power generation is to directly convert the photovoltaic effect generated by the light irradiated to the solar panel into direct current energy output, and its structure is generally composed of solar panels, batteries, controllers, inverters and brackets. The disadvantages of photovoltaic power generation are: high initial investment cost; Lower energy density; Intermittent power generation; Greatly affected by climatic conditions (can not generate electricity on rainy days); Photovoltaic power generation is currently mainly used in three aspects, namely: to provide power for places without power; Grid-connected power generation; Production of solar electronic products, such as all kinds of solar chargers, solar lamps (including solar street lights), solar water heaters, etc.
1.1 The basic characteristics of solar panels and their applications
In order for the solar panel components to receive as much solar radiant energy as possible during the year, an optimal Angle is selected for the solar panel components during installation. Through the calculation of the special model, the change value of the monthly average solar irradiance of different inclination planes can be obtained. On the inclined plane of different angles, the solar irradiance varies greatly. Therefore, when installing solar panel components, the suitable inclination Angle should be selected through the test to obtain the maximum solar irradiance.
1.2 The basic characteristics and application of solar battery
The solar battery group is the energy storage device of the solar panel, its role is to store the electric energy emitted by the panel when there is sunshine, and it is used for load at night or cloudy and rainy days. The battery is composed of a number of batteries in series and parallel, and its capacity requires that it can meet the power supply time and power supply requirements of street lights in the days without solar radiation. At present, lead-acid batteries are commonly used in China, and cadmium-nickel batteries can also be used in important occasions, but the latter price is higher. The storage battery is chemical energy, it converts direct current energy into chemical energy storage, and then converts chemical energy into electrical energy when needed, visible energy conversion process is reversible, the former is called battery charging, the latter is called battery discharge. Therefore, in the photovoltaic power generation system, the battery plays a role in the storage and regulation (release) of the electric energy generated by the system; Since the power output of the photovoltaic power generation system changes every day, the battery can also provide relatively stable electricity when the sunshine is insufficient or the photovoltaic power generation system needs to be repaired.
1.3 The basic characteristics and application of solar lighting fixtures
Since LED is a DC power supply device, it is easy to be made into DC lamps, which are widely used in DC systems, such as solar lighting products. It has flat type ultra-high brightness LED, single beam type ultra-high brightness LED and beam type ultra-high brightness LED combination of three, because a single beam type ultra-high brightness LED light tube light direction is too strong, the comprehensive visual effect is poor, so, Flat type ultra-high brightness LED or flat type and beam type ultra-high brightness LED combination should be preferred, multiple leds are concentrated together, arranged and combined into a certain regular LED light source, as a solar street lamp lighting fixture.
1.4 Solar street lamp overcharge and overdischarge protection function
In the application of solar street lights, attention should be paid to the control of overcharge and overdischarge of the battery. The so-called overcharge control is to disconnect the charging circuit in time when the battery is in the overcharge state, and the over-discharge control is to disconnect the discharge circuit in time when the battery is in the over-discharge state, which is to protect the battery and extend its service life. The basis for judging overcharge and overdischarge is the change of the battery voltage: When there is sunlight on a sunny day, the solar photovoltaic panel absorbs light energy through the relay switch normally closed point to charge the battery, when the battery voltage is higher than 26V, the storage battery is in an overcharged state, the relay switch normally closed point is broken, the normal open point is closed, the charging circuit automatically disconnected, stop charging the battery. Realize overcharge protection function; At night, the battery supplies power to the street lamp. When the voltage of the battery is lower than 22V, the battery is in the overdischarge state, the relay switch is turned from the normally closed point to the normally open point, the discharge circuit is automatically disconnected, and the power supply to the load (street lamp) is stopped, and the overdischarge protection function is realized.