The Tokyo Olympic Games officially kicked off on July 23, 2021. This Olympic Games is arguably the most special one. It should have been held in 2020, but due to the epidemic, it will be postponed by one year. The Tokyo Olympics lasted for 17 days from July 23 to August 8. The Olympic Games added 5 new sports including skateboarding, surfing, and karate, with a total of 33 major events and finally 339 gold medals. Due to the relatively long process of individual events, football and softball light events have already started before the opening ceremony.
At 19:00 on the 23rd, the opening ceremony will be held at the New National Stadium in Tokyo, but no spectators entered. The Olympic Organizing Committee stated that although the venue is open, the fireworks show and athletes can still be seen, and at the same time. The cheers of the audience will also be heard.
The Olympic Games is the world’s largest comprehensive sports meeting hosted by the Olympic Committee. It is held every four years and its importance is self-evident. In order to ensure that athletes, referees and spectators can clearly see the competition in the venue, the venue must have complete facilities, and high-quality and high-quality products will also be used. Some events are carried out during the day, and athletes, referees and spectators can rely on natural light; however, some events are carried out at night or indoors, so lighting equipment is essential.
When choosing lighting equipment, it is best to choose strong and professional brand lighting for sports lighting. First, it has the strength to ensure the quality of lighting fixtures are safe and reliable; second, because of its professionalism, its lighting can achieve the desired effect, no glare, no overflow, and the chromaticity meets the requirements of the venue. If the lighting equipment does not meet the standard, unexpected things will occur, such as the lighting is too bright or not bright enough, glare, and the lighting suddenly goes out. This may directly affect the performance of the athletes and even the result of the competition.
The design focus of sport field lighting is the venue lighting in the hall, that is, competition lighting. The venue lighting in the museum is a highly functional, technical and difficult design. To meet the requirements of various sports competitions, it is conducive to the technical level of the athletes, it is conducive to the correct judgment of the referees, and it is conducive to the viewing effect of all positions in the audience. The design of sport field lighting should pay special attention to the live broadcast of color TV. In order to ensure that the broadcast image is vivid and clear, and the colors are vivid, there are specific requirements for vertical illuminance, uniformity of illuminance and three-dimensionality, color temperature and color rendering of the light source. Whether the design of sport field lighting can meet the requirements of illumination standards and lighting quality is one of the main indicators for evaluating a sport field. So, do you really know how sport field lighting is designed?
What are the design standards of sport field lighting?
Different sports have different requirements for venue lighting. However, no matter how many sports are integrated in the stadium, it must also meet the requirements of the relevant international individual sports organizations, the General Association of International Sports Federation, and the International Olympic Committee on the lighting of the venue, otherwise the stadium will not pass the acceptance.
The main competition items of the National Stadium include track and field, football, etc. Therefore, sport field lighting should meet the standards. According to the nature, level and requirements of the competition, it is necessary to classify the competition. The International Sports Federation GAISF classifies matches according to whether the competition is professional or not, while FIFA FIFA classifies football matches according to whether there is a TV broadcast. The purpose of artificial lighting in the stadium is to provide a good visual environment for people participating in the game.
There are several types of people participating in the competition: athletes, referees, officials; advertisers; TV and film camera crews; text reporters and photographers; audiences. Therefore, the lighting of the main stadium of the Olympic Games should have a uniform brightness distribution.
The lighting design must determine the lighting method. Sport field lighting methods mainly include four corner column arrangements, lateral side lighting arrangements, peripheral Circle lighting arrangements, and mixed mixed lighting arrangements. Various lighting methods have their own strengths, and there are successful examples. According to the architectural and structural characteristics of the National Stadium, the lighting method of the venue can only choose the lateral lighting. There is no doubt that the lateral lighting can easily meet the requirements of football matches. However, for track and field competitions, there are many small events, and they are scattered. Different events have different lighting requirements. If the lateral lighting cannot meet the requirements of the track and field, the lateral lighting can be appropriately extended in the north and south directions. . In 2000, the main stadium of the Sydney Olympic Games used mixed lighting, that is, four lighthouses were set up at the four corners of the venue, and four light strips were set up on the east and west sides. There are many parameters for choosing suitable lamps and lanterns. In the lighting of stadiums, two points should be paid attention to. The first is the shape of the beam. For the side lighting, a rectangular or trapezoidal beam should be used instead of a circular beam. The other is the beam angle. The smaller the beam angle, the narrower the beam, and the longer the projection distance.
The National Stadium adopts a lateral lighting method, with two light strips on the east and west sides, one in the middle and rear of the ceiling and the other in the middle and front of the ceiling. The projection distance of the lamps is bigger than 50m. Therefore, when choosing lamps, the beam angle should be less 45°. Determine the installation height of the luminaire The installation height of the luminaire has an impression on the vertical illuminance and therefore the degree of glare, and therefore the vertical illuminance and the glare affect each other. The higher the installation height of sport field lighting, the more beneficial it’s to regulate glare, but it’s not conducive to improving the vertical illuminance; on the contrary, the smaller the installation height of the luminaire, it helps to enhance the vertical illuminance, but the glare increases at an equivalent time. Therefore, find a balance between vertical illuminance and glare control, so that both can meet the requirements.
The installation height of the luminaire is calculated according to the following two formulas:
In the formula: H——the installation height of the lamp, unit: m; d——the vertical distance from the projection point of the lamp on the plane of the competition field to the center line of the field, unit: m. The triangle wont to calculate the peak is perpendicular to the plane of the playing field and parallel to rock bottom line of the gridiron . Of course, the plane must be calculated to work out the installation height of the lamps; φ——calculate the angle like the installation height of the lamps within the triangle, φ≥25° . Therefore, by first measuring d on the court plane, then measuring the angle φ, the installation height h of the lamp are often calculated by formulas (1) and (2). According to the installation height of the lamps, combined with the roof structure and architectural characteristics, the position of the horse road gantry are often determined. The lamps and their ballast boxes, cables, power distribution cabinets, etc. are all installed on the horse road. Calculate the number of lamps and arrange the lamps reasonably. Use the calculation software of the professional lighting company to calculate the number of lamps according to the above-mentioned site lighting standards, lamps, lighting methods, and lamp installation heights. This step is that the most vital a part of site lighting design. When designing, please concentrate to the subsequent points:
- The location of the camera. There are more cameras, and therefore the vertical illumination of every point is required to be high. Pay special attention to the vertical illumination of the starting line, finishing line, throwing area, take-off point (line), landing place, pole passing, etc. The camera features a high probability of shooting in these places. Moreover, the video arbitration photo-finish must also use the relevant image data to make the arbitration. There is also a special camera for track and field competition, that is, a 110m-long rail camera, which is laid along the outer side of the straight track on both sides of the east and west, and moves as the athlete runs. The vertical illumination requirements of every point during this section are very high. Close-up camera shots are also commonly used, and close-up shooting also requires high lighting quality.
- Determine the aiming point. The aiming point is decided from the subsequent aspects: First, the use rate of radiant flux should be high, most of the radiant flux must be projected into the venue, and therefore the radiant flux falling on the auditorium cannot exceed 25% of the radiant flux of the venue. The second is that the uniform lighting of the venue. However, there must be sufficient brightness within a particular height above the venue to avoid dark areas within the sky. The third is that adjacent light beams should overlap, and therefore the illumination and uniformity requirements are often met under different lighting modes. Even if one lamp is broken , the contrast and uniformity won’t be greatly affected. Finally, it is necessary to ensure that the glare generated within the line of sight of the athletes, referees, and spectators is minimized;
- In order to avoid interference with the goalkeeper and offensive players near the corner kick zone, the midpoint of the goal line is used as the reference point, and lights cannot be placed within at least 10° on both sides of the baseline. Therefore, lamps can’t be installed at the intersection of the four horse lanes on the east and west roofs of the stadium and therefore the dark color and its extension area.
How to choose sport field lighting?
Selection of light source
- For stadiums with high lighting installation heights, high-suspension fluorescent lamps, high-efficiency LED floodlights, and metal halide lamps should be used as the light source.
- Indoor gymnasiums with low ceilings and small areas should use high-suspension fluorescent lamps and low-power LED lamps.
- Special lamps are often used as light sources in special places, like explosion-proof lamps.
- The power of the sunshine source should be compatible with the dimensions, installation location and height of the competition venue. Outdoor stadiums should use high-power and medium-power LED lamps and metal halide lamps, and ensure that the light source works uninterrupted or starts quickly.
- The light source should have suitable color temperature, good color rendering, high luminous efficiency, long life and stable lighting and photoelectric characteristics.
- Glare is directly associated with the lighting method, installation height, angle, and power of the lamp. For places with high requirements for glare, it is recommended to use high-hanging fluorescent lamps or adjust the height and angle to reduce the glare of the lamps. Light-emitting mode: point light source (LED, metal halide lamp), characteristic, single-point light efficiency, large glare, difficult to control; surface light source (high suspension fluorescent lamp, high suspension LED lamp), uniform illumination, low glare.
Selection of lighting accessories
- The selected lighting fixtures should comply with the relevant regulations of the current national standards.
- According to the environmental requirements of the lighting place, the following lamps are selected respectively.
- In places with corrosive gas or steam, anti-corrosion closed lamps should be used.
- Lamps and lanterns in places with large vibration and swing should be provided with anti-vibration and anti-falling measures.
- In places where it is necessary to prevent ultraviolet radiation, ultraviolet-proof lamps or firewood-free light sources should be used.
- Lamps directly installed on the surface of combustible materials should use lamps marked with “F”.
Selection of core components such as ballasts
- High-suspension fluorescent lamps should be equipped with electronic ballasts, and the light source should be a dedicated long-life light source to ensure light efficiency and life.
- High-pressure sodium lamps and metal halide lamps should use energy-saving inductive ballasts. In places with large voltage deviations, constant power ballasts should be used. Electronic ballasts can be used for those with lower power.
- The power supply of LED lamps should be driven by products with stable quality and good heat dissipation to ensure the luminous decay and service life of the lamps.
Light pole and setting requirements
When the venue adopts four-tower, multi-tower or tower-belt mixed lighting method for lighting, it is necessary to use lighting poles as the carrier of the lamps. When the lighting pole meets the requirements of lighting technical conditions, the relationship with the building mainly has the following ways:
1. The light pole is independent of the main building. This light pole exists as an independent device and is currently widely used.
2. The light pole is attached to the main building, but not integrated with the main building. The foundation of this form may be different from the foundation of the building and needs to be treated separately.
3. When the light pole is attached to the main building and integrated with the main building as a whole, this form can deal with aesthetic problems very well. If this kind of plan is feasible, this kind of plan can be considered first.
4. The light pole should be set up with obstacle lighting according to aviation management.
Horse track and setting requirements
- The gymnasium shall set up horse lanes as required, and the number, height, direction and position of the horse lanes shall meet the requirements of the lighting device.
- The horse track should have enough space for operation.
- The installation position of the horse track should avoid the blocking of the lighting light by the building decoration materials, installation parts, pipelines and structural parts.
Bbier specializes in sports field lighting and is a supplier of sports lighting system solutions. Bbier sports light source adopts imported high-efficiency LED, with soft color and good stability, making the color temperature closer to natural light, and the lamp body has a beautiful and generous appearance. Bbier sport field lighting will make the entire sports field more upscale, beautiful and harmonious.
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